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T&L 549 Doctoral Seminar

Resources for Writing & Research

Below is a small selection of both print and online books on education research methodologies, learning theories, and qualitative research that are available in the collection. Hover over the title for a brief overview and click on the title to be taken to the listing in the catalog where you can find more information such as how to access the book if it's online. If you want to find additional books, send me an email or ask a librarian around the clock using our Ask Us 24/7 chat service!


Literature reviews synthesize and analyze what has been written on a particular topic and identify gaps or disagreements in the scholarly work on that topic. Within a scholarly work, the literature review situates the current work within the larger scholarly conversation and emphasizes how that particular scholarly work contributes to the conversation on the topic. The literature review portion may be as brief as a few paragraphs focusing on a narrow topic area. 

For in-depth information on literature reviews and tips for getting started, check out our Literature Review Research Guide!

For writing assistance and formatting your literature review, make a virtual appointment with UND's Writing Center

Looking at examples of literature reviews can be helpful to get a sense of structure and scope. Below are examples of literature reviews on topics within education:

A theoretical framework "consists of the selected theory (or theories) that undergirds your thinking with regards to how you understand and plan to research your topic, as well as the concepts and definitions from that theory that are relevant to your topic" (Grant & Osanloo, 2014, p. 13). You can think of the theoretical framework as the structure that supports your research.

A conceptual framework "is often described as a system of concepts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs and theories that support and inform one’s research" (Hughes, 2019, p. 28).

According to Kivunja (2018), while "the conceptual framework could be the product of your own thinking about your research study, the theoretical framework comprises other people’s theoretical perspectives that you interpret as relevant to your research, and in particular, helpful in your data analysis and interpretation" (p. 47)


To look up background information, definitions, and related resources for different theories and concepts, you can use Credo Reference 



Suggested Articles on Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks