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Citation Style Guides

Links to tip sheets, online guides, more help

Table of Contents

The purpose of this guide is to assist you in understanding various citation styles and locate resources and manuals:


Locate the library copy of the style manual, tip sheets, online resources and videos about the American Psychological Association (APA) latest version.


Locate the library copy of the style manual, tip sheets, online resources and videos about the Modern Language Association (MLA) latest version.


Locate the library copy of the style manual, tip sheets, online resources and videos about the University of Chicago and Turabian latest versions.

Other Styles

Style guides for Chemistry, Science, Data, Engineering, Government Documents, Legal, Sociology. Considerations for online environment; diversity and inclusive language resources.

How to cite Government Resources

Links out to a separate guide specific to Government documents in Chicago and APA.

Tools in Databases

EBSCO databases such as Academic Search Ultimate have built-in citation tools to make the process easier.


Explanation of A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) which is important for most citation styles.

This Guide

Learn about citing your work.

Read below for general information, or click on the  green  navigation tabs for specific resources on styles like APA & MLA.

  • Looking for library copies of the APA Style Manual and MLA Style Manual?
  • Visit a separate guide to learn about using Citation Managers?

What Are Citation and Style?

So You Have to Cite Your Paper

You might find yourself wondering what in the world "citation" is, how "style" has anything to do with it, and why your two professors are making your cite your work in two completely different ways! You might be an expert at one or two citation styles, or you may have never used a citation style in your life. Either way, the information needed to correctly and clearly cite information in your work is readily available to you. Today, there is no need to memorize how to cite every type of resource you may come across. In most cases, you can follow along with an online or print guide (even expert academics follow citation manuals most of the time). This guide is designed to help you cite your work. 

For an in-depth look at the most common citation styles (APA, MLA, and Chicago) follow the tabs on the side.


Q: Why do you I have to cite my sources? It's not like my professor is going to check them anyway.

A: Making stuff up is not okay, and not being able to trace evidence severely weakens the credibility of your argument. Taking the risk that your professor won't check your sources is just that: a risk. You might get away with it, but if you get caught, you could face serious repercussions that might end up being more painful than just citing sources correctly in the first place.

Q: Why do I have to cite things in the style (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.)? 

A: Well, the first reason is because you've probably been asked to do so by your professor and you want to do well on the assignment. Besides that, the style usually fits the class and project. MLA style gives preference to author and text, which is important in literature and related studies. In the social sciences, date of publication is important as new information can quickly replace the old, so APA style puts the date at the forefront. The different styles developed to fit different scholarship needs.

Q: What happens if I can't find the information on how to cite a tweet by Beyonce?

A: Sometimes it can be difficult to cite new media like a tweet, especially if the guidelines aren't as clear as they would be for a more traditional source like a book or an article. Luckily, most style guides now have specific guidelines for citing new media, although some sources are still unclear. To be safe, follow the closest style you can find. To be extra safe, talk to your instructor. Ask them specifically how they want the information cited. In most cases, they will be more lenient on a newer media source, as long as the information in your works cited page still gives all the necessary information (author, location, date, etc.)

Writing Assistance

Writing Center 

The library not only serves as a rich resource for students to find quality information, but it also serves as an academic "one-stop" for students to get assistance in multiple areas. The Writing Center is located on the third floor of the library. Students can utilize the Writing Center to work with Writing Center staff on revising their papers and to get connected with additional writing resources. Projects the Writing Center staff can help with include (but aren't limited to):

  • Class assignments
  • Graduate dissertations and theses 
  • Creative writing stories

The Writing Center has quality formatting guides to assist with citation styles like APA, Chicago, and MLA as well as tips for writing a UND dissertation or thesis. 

For more information, please see the UND Writing Center webpage

Ethical use of sources

Looking for more information on how to find and use sources? The Chester Fritz Library has a dedicated research guide to Ethical Use of Sources, which provides in-depth information on finding and using sources as well as tips on avoiding plagiarism.