Physical Therapy

Library of the Health Sciences

APA Style

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Style (a.k.a. APA Style) is primarily used by researchers and students in the following fields:

  • Nursing
  • Social Sciences
  • Business

Online Resources

Help! I can't find the DOI!

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique number assigned to an article to help with online article retrieval.

                Example:  10.1787/888933152623

Why do I Need it?

APA citation style requires that you include the DOI at the end of your references for both print and electronic articles.

Where can I Find it?

There are three places you can look for an article DOI:

1) On the database search results page within the information about the article.

2) On the first page of the full text of the article.

3) Article DOIs can be looked up using the website crossref.org.

  • Type the title of your article into the Metadata search bar.
  • Look for your article in the search results.
  • The DOI will be listed on the search results page.

*DOIs can be assigned to an article at any time. Don't assume that an older article won't have a DOI.* 

Still Can’t Find it?

APA guidelines state if there is no DOI available then at the end of your citation include “Retrieved From” and the web address for the journal homepage.
Note: Not the direct web address for the article.

Help! I don't know which citation style to use!

For Students:

Most instructors will tell you which citation style to use for their assignments.  If your instructor doesn't have a preference, you should use the citation style most appropriate for your career or field.

For Writers:

The citation style you use should be based on the journal into which you are seeking publication.  Guidelines for publication can be found on the journal's website.